A heat wave is associated with very high daytime and nighttime temperatures for an extended period, usually at least 3 consecutive days. Definition, vulnerable people, dates of heat waves in France, episodes 2022: special file high heat.
France has known three heat waves during the summer of 2022 . The last one ended on August 14, giving way to thunderstorms . Heat waves could be more and more frequent in the years to come in connection with the global warming . We recense 45 heat waves in France since 1947, has recalled Meteo France . Over the last 35 years, they have been 3 times more numerous than over the previous 35 years. The number of days of heat waves has been multiplied by 9: 'The frequency and intensity of heat waves are set to increase in the coming decades. The frequency of events is expected to double by 2050 .' Extreme heat, day and night, for several days, puts the body to the test. The children and the elderly people are very vulnerable hot weather and special attention should be paid to them. Reminder of government instructions and recommendations in the event of a heat wave to avoid heat stroke, dehydration ...
Word 'heat wave' comes from Latin ' heat ' which means 'little female dog'. Canicula is the name given to the star Sirius (which comes from the Greek 'seirius', meaning ' burning', 'fiery' ). which is found in the constellation Canis Major. Star that rises and sets with the sun from July 22 to August 22, a characteristic period of high heat . The heat wave is associated with very high temperatures day and night for an extended period of time, usually of at least 3 consecutive days .
France has known one third heat wave in August 202.
► A first heat wave took place in June 2022 : the peak occurred on Saturday June 18 with records in the west and south-west ( 43°C in Biarritz ). Sunday June 19, the heat decreased in the west but strengthened between the center-east and Alsace (38°C in Strasbourg).
► One second heat wave settled in France on July 12 and ended on July 25, with extreme peaks on July 18 and 19. The national bulletin of Public health France indicated that this wave affected most of the territory, 96% of the population experienced at least one day of orange vigilance and 16.5% on a day of red vigilance . ' This episode took hold for several departments in the South East, with more than 7 days of alert 'This episode is characterized by exceptional maximum temperatures and broken records on the country's Atlantic coast, leading to red alertness. But, with the exception of the Southeast, this episode remained short-lived (less than 4 days) in the majority of departments. For the period of vigilance, 4 deaths possibly linked to heat have been notified to Public Health France by the labor inspection system. These 4 deaths occurred during an orange or red heatwave alert.
► A third heatwave episode of the July 31 to August 14. ' This heat wave is remarkable for its duration, especially in the southern departments ' underlined Public Health France in its August 9 point. Between August 09 and 16, 20% of the population was affected by orange vigilance , and 65% by yellow vigilance, specifies the agency .
In the event of a heat wave, the government recommends:
Departmental weather forecasts are analyzed every day during the summer by Météo-France. The results of this analysis allow Météo-France to establish the weather vigilance map which is broadcast every day at 4 p.m.
► The yellow vigilance level corresponds to two situations:
These two situations present a risk for human health, for fragile or overexposed populations, in particular because of their working conditions or their physical activity.
► The orange vigilance level corresponds to a heat wave: period of intense heat for which the averages over 3 consecutive days of night and day temperatures reach or exceed departmental thresholds, and which is likely to constitute a health risk, particularly for fragile or overexposed people.
► The level of red vigilance corresponds to an extreme heat wave : exceptional heat wave in terms of its duration, its intensity, its geographical extension, with a strong health impact for all types of population, and which can lead to the appearance of collateral effects, particularly in terms of business continuity.
Prolonged exposure to heat is a major stress for the body, reminds the Ministry of Health . The human body tries to adapt to it . The sweat more and the blood vessels dilate . If it is unable to maintain its temperature around 37°C when it is very hot or if body fluids or salts are not adequately replaced, several problems can arise:
Extreme heat can also aggravate pre-existing illnesses, being responsible for heat-related illnesses. Taking certain medications can make heat-related effects worse, especially in people at risk.
► Cramps, nausea, inexplicable tiredness, severe headache, incoherent talk or high fever: Call 15
Heat stroke or 'hypothermia' corresponds to overheating of the body: it can no longer cope with the increase in internal temperature linked to high temperatures. It mostly affects athletes, but also the elderly, outdoor workers, and young children during peak heat. This also applies to adults who stay too long in confined and poorly ventilated rooms. For example, staying for hours in a car or on an RER in the heat is a big risk. Cramps, headaches, hot, flushed skin ... The first warning signs that must grow to call 15 .
Puffs of sweat when drinking a glass of water, absence of urine for 5 hours or dark urine, dry lips... Beware of dehydration, which is particularly common in the event of a heat wave. Concretely: a person who sweats and does not drink enough becomes dehydrated. His body lacks water and becomes dehydrated. The elderly are most at risk.
For the elderly, patients with chronic diseases (kidney, heart, liver, respiratory failure, diabetes, cancers...), patients taking certain medications (diuretics, neuroleptics, antidepressants): hyponatremia ( decrease in the concentration of salt in the blood ) is a risk increased in hot weather. For those at risk: do not exceed an intake of 1.5 liters of water in addition to foods rich in water, eat a balanced diet, avoid going outside during the hottest hours and see your doctor if you are following a low-salt diet.
The heat wave is associated with very high temperatures day and night for an extended period of time, usually of at least 3 consecutive days . Meteorologically, it is exceptional nature of high night temperatures which marks the duration of a heatwave episode. Temperature and duration thresholds are defined and vary according to the departments, explains Meteo France .
For instance : In Toulouse, Météo-France speaks of a heat wave when for 3 days and 3 nights it does not fall below 21°C minimum and it exceeds 36°C maximum during the day.
Those most at risk in a heat wave are: people over the age of 65 (when one is old , the body sweats little and has difficulty maintaining itself at 37°C). and infants and children under 4 years of age ( the body sweats a lot to keep it at the right temperature, the child loses water and risks dehydration) . Next come: people with strong physical activity, those working in the heat (bakery, laundry, construction...) and the homeless.
Each year, the heat wave plan is activated in France on June 1 and until September 15. Its objective is to anticipate the arrival of a heat wave, to define the actions to be implemented at the local and national levels to prevent and limit the health effects and to best adapt the prevention and management measures at the territorial level. paying particular attention to specific populations
Since 2015, the heat waves have increase in frequency and intensity in France with an occurrence earlier (in June) or later (late August-early September) during the summer period. Among the main heat waves in June in France , those of june 1947 , 1976 , 2003 , 2005, 2006 . There was no heat wave in France during the summer of 2021.
► August 2022 : a heatwave episode affected France from July 31 to August 14.
► July 2022: a heatwave episode hit France between 12 and 20 July.
► June 2022: the heat wave episode began on June 15, 2022 and affected 71 departments. 70% of the metropolitan population experienced at least one day of orange heat wave vigilance. 14 departments were also placed on red heat wave vigilance for at least one day, i.e. 12.5% of the population. This episode was unprecedented in its precocity and intensity. Several temperature records for the month of June and also in absolute terms were recorded.
► 2019 between June 24 and July 7 and July 21 and 27. According to bulletin published by Santé Publique France in september, 1435 deaths were observed during this heat wave. Those most affected are those over 75, but age groups 15-44 and 65-74 were also impacted.
► J June 2005 and 2006 with temperatures often between 35 and 40°C , in particular in the south-east and in the Rhône valley (more than 30°C every day in Lyon in 2006).
► A August 2003. Its intensity, duration and geographic scope had been exceptional. She had caused 15,000 additional deaths compared to the usual mortality for this period of the year in France.
► Other memorable heat waves: that of July 1983 'longest observed' remember Meteo France , and those of the summer of 1947 and 1976 .
The August 2003 heat wave was exceptional couple said duration ( two weeks ) between August 1 and August 15, its intensity and geographic extent. The summer of 2003 was the hottest on record since 1950, recalls Meteo France . The temperatures rose from 24 to 37 degrees the first 5 days of August then capped at 36-37 degrees until August 13 . The temperature record was recorded at the stations of Saint-Christol-les-Alès and Conqueyrac in the Gard, with 44.1°C. In mainland France, 47,000 deaths from all causes were recorded during the 2003 heat wave, compared to an average of 31,700 over the same period during the years 1999-2002, i.e. a death excess of 15,300 , reports the Insee . The excess mortality affected the whole of France, even in the departments where the number of heat waves was low.
The heat wave occurs at different times depending on the country. In France, the period of high temperatures that can lead to a heat wave can start from end of June and continue until August 15 .
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